1. Convert to Judaism. See next-to-last paragraph: http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/KK.
2. Jewish mother, née Yvonne Weill.
3. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.
4. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother, according to a follow-up dispatch issued by the Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) several days after publication of its October 14, 1992 story on that year's Nobel Prizes, written by Tom Tugend. Fischer is a member of the Board of Governors of the Weizmann Institute.
5. Information elsewhere on the Web contains the claim that Casimir Funk was not Jewish. Among the many references which describe Funk as having been Jewish is Who's Who in World Jewry 1965: A Biographical Dictionary of Outstanding Jews, edited by Harry Schneiderman and I.J. Carmin Karpman (McKay, New York, 1965, p. 417). This reference is significant in this context since all of the biographical profiles that it contains were based on data supplied by the profiled individuals themselves, and later approved by them.
6. Jewish mother, Lillian Lee Elrick (née Lillian Erlich).
7. Stephen Kuffler, known as the "father of modern neuroscience," was described as having had a Jewish paternal grandmother by his colleague Nobel Prize winner Sir Bernard Katz and as having had "one Jewish grandfather" by his former student Nobel Prize winner Eric Kandel. In fact, all four of Kuffler's grandparents were Jews, although he was baptized into the Reformed Church of Hungary and identified as a Roman Catholic most of his life. His paternal grandparents were Benjamin and Flora (née Mittelmann) Kuffler; his maternal grandparents were Adolf and Julia (née Schlesinger) Kohn. (Contrary to other biographical information, his mother was born Elsa (or Elza) Kohn, not Elsa Kertesz.) Kuffler's paternal grandparents are buried in the Jewish Cemetery of Györ, Györ-Moson-Sopron, Hungary. His uncle Paul (Pal) Kuffler, who was murdered by the Nazis in 1944, is buried in the Kozma Street Jewish Cemetery in Budapest.
8. Alfred Lotka was born in 1880 in Lemberg, Austria-Poland to parents who were missionaries associated with the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews. Many of these missionaries, including Lotka's father, were converted Jews themselves. In his History of the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews (London, 1908), W. T. Gidney describes Jacob Lotka (the father of Alfred Lotka) as a "Polish Israelite" (p. 354) and as a "Hebrew Christian" (p. 614). Jacob (also known as Jacques) Lotka headed the Society's station in Lemberg in the years 1873-1881 and later undertook missions to Jewish communities in Persia, Russia, and Hungary. No information is available to us at present concerning the mother of Alfred Lotka.
9. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see first paragraph of biography: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1908/mechnikov.html.
10. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; identifies as a Jew, according to an interview in Candid Science II: Conversations with Famous Biomedical Scientists, by István Hargittai (Imperial College Press, London, 2002, p. 567).
11. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see first paragraph of biography: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1946/muller.html.
12. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother; see http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/car/1998/2/wtmar12.htm.
13. Jewish maternal grandparents and paternal grandfather, non-Jewish paternal grandmother.
14. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father according to interview in Bitter Prerequisites: A Faculty for Survival from Nazi Terror, by William Laird Kleine-Ahlbrandt (Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, IN, 2001, p. 48). See also http://www.purdue.edu/UNS/html4ever/010216.Nat.Ahlbrandt.book.html.
15. Jewish father (poet and naturalist Lew Sarett, born Lewis Saretsky), non-Jewish mother.
16. Not generally known to have been Jewish. However, Hans Morgenstern's Jüdisches Biographisches Lexikon (LIT Verlag, Berlin and Vienna, 2011, p. 757) lists Selye as half-Jewish through his mother, Felicitas Langbank. Other data, contained in Dr. Anna Staudacher's (Austrian Academy of Sciences) compilation of "Leavings of the Jewish Community of Vienna between 1868 and 1914" lists Dr. Hugo Selye, Hans Selye's father, as having converted from Judaism to Christianity in 1902. According to Viennese Jewish communal records, Felicitas Langbank was born Felice (or Felicia) Langbank in 1884 to Heinrich (Mayer Hirsch) Langbank and Adele Neumann. Staudacher's research indicates that she underwent conversion in 1906.
17. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother, according to an interview published in Candid Science II, by István Hargittai (Imperial College Press, London, 2002, p. 562).
18. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.
19. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.
20. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother. Raised Jewish; wife and children are Jewish. See: https://www.jewishexponent.com/2021/12/16/penn-professor-saves-the-world-with-covid-vaccine-research/.