This section concerns contributions to the development of information science and technology at its logical (as opposed to its hardware) level.  Specifically, this section deals with areas such as computation theory, artificial intelligence, the statistical theories of information, communication, and systems control, cryptography, operations research, computer and network architectures, and algorithm and software design.  The general level of this contribution is reflected in the current ~45% Jewish membership in the Computer and Information Sciences division of the US National Academy of Sciences and in the percentages of Jewish recipients shown below for several of the most prestigious awards in the field.
Some of the more notable Jewish contributions are listed below.  (The names of non-Jewish scientists and engineers mentioned in the accompanying discussion have been denoted with the superscript "+" in order to avoid confusion.)
1. See  Genius in the Shadows: A Biography of Leo Szilard, by William Lanouette (Scribner's, New York, 1992, p. 63).
2. See  "Emil Post and His Anticipation of Gödel and Turing," by John Stillwell in Mathematics Magazine (Mathematical Association of America, Washington, DC, Vol. 77, No. 1, Feb. 2004, pp. 3-14).  See also
3. See "Max Newman: Mathematician, Codebreaker and Computer Pioneer," by William Newman in Colossus: The First Electronic Computer, edited by Jack Copeland (Oxford, Oxford and New York, 2004).
4. See
5. Encyclopedia of Computer Science (Fourth Edition), edited by Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger (Wiley, Chichester, England, 2003, p. 1841).
6. Parallel Supercomputing in SIMD Architectures, by R. Michael Hord (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1990).
7. Although most supercomputers are now based on MIMD (multiple instruction, multiple data) architectures, their individual processing nodes generally embody small-scale SIMD capabilities.  The still largely hypothetical quantum computer can be thought of as an SIMD machine with exponentially many virtual processors.
8. See  AI: The Tumultuous History of the Search for Artificial Intelligence, by Daniel Crevier (Basic Books, New York, 1993, p. 26), or Encyclopedia of Computer Science (Fourth Edition), edited by Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger (Wiley, Chichester, England, 2003, p. 91).
9. See
10. See the next-to-last paragraphs in and in the obituary published in the November 2000 issue of Physics Today (pp. 75-76).  See also the  discussion in the Appendix to Tracking and Kalman Filtering Made Easy, by Eli Brookner (Wiley, New York, 1998, pp. 383-387).
Georg Cantor and Herbert Simon had  Jewish fathers; Simon's mother was of partial Jewish descent, which was also the case, at a minimum, for the mother of Georg Cantor.  Max Newman and Vinton Cerf had Jewish fathers and non-Jewish mothers, while Richard Brodie, Yuri Manin, John McCarthy, Larry Page, and Lotfi Zadeh have, or had, Jewish mothers.  For more information, see the footnotes to these and other listings in Jewish Computer and Information Scientists, or in the case of Manin, in Jewish Mathematicians.

+ Non-Jewish.


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