JEWS IN MATHEMATICS
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Eric Temple Bell's classic Men of Mathematics describes the lives and work of the great pre-twentieth century mathematicians.  The thirty-four biographical portraits contained in this book include those of four mathematicians of Jewish descent: Carl G. J. Jacobi, James Joseph Sylvester, Leopold Kronecker, and Georg Cantor*.  In the twentieth century, the Jewish contribution to mathematics increased dramatically with the work of individuals such as Jacques Hadamard, Hermann Minkowski, Felix Hausdorff, Emmy Noether (widely considered to have been the greatest woman in the history of mathematics), John von Neumann, Vito Volterra, Norbert Wiener, Oscar Zariski, Emil Post, Alfred Tarski, Paul Erdös, Israel Gelfand, André Weil, Alexander Grothendieck*, and hundreds of others. 

Jews have made major contributions to virtually all branches of mathematics and were especially prominent among the founders and pioneers of a number of these, including set theory (Georg Cantor*, Abraham Fraenkel, and Felix Hausdorff), modern algebraic geometry (Guido Castelnuovo, Federigo Enriques, Oscar Zariski,
André Weil, and Alexander Grothendieck*), functional analysis (Giulio Ascoli, Cesare Arzelŕ, Jacques Hadamard, Vito Volterra, Frigyes Riesz, Hans Hahn, Eduard Helly, Norbert Wiener, and John von Neumann), theory of operator algebras (John von Neumann, Israel Gelfand, Mark Naimark, I. E. Segal, and Irving Kaplansky), integral equations theory (Vito Volterra), and stochastic process theory (Albert Einstein, Paul Lévy, Norbert Wiener, Wolfgang Doeblin, William Feller*, and Joseph Doob). 

A number of the most powerful mathematical methods employed in scientific, engineering, and/or economic applications were invented, or co-invented, by Jews, including the finite element method (Boris Galerkin and Richard Courant), the Monte Carlo method (Stanislaw Ulam and John von Neumann),
linear programming (Leonid Kantorovich, George B. Dantzig, and John von Neumann), and game theory (John von Neumann).  Work in the latter two fields has garnered more than a dozen Nobel Prizes in economics.     

The relative magnitude of the Jewish contribution to mathematics (at least to modern mathematics) can be estimated from the Jewish representation among the recipients of several of the most prestigious
awards in the field, which are listed below.   Another indicator is the greater than 40% Jewish makeup of the combined membership of the divisions of mathematics and applied mathematical sciences of the US National Academy of Sciences.

NOTES 
*  See footnotes on the Jewish backgrounds of Cantor, Feller, and Grothendieck in the list of  Jewish Mathematicians.

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