JEWS IN MATHEMATICSEric Temple Bell's classicMen of Mathematicsdescribes the lives and work of the great pre-twentieth century mathematicians. The thirty-four biographical portraits contained in this book include those of four mathematicians of Jewish descent: Carl G. J. Jacobi, James Joseph Sylvester, Leopold Kronecker, and Georg Cantor*. In the twentieth century, the Jewish contribution to mathematics increased dramatically with the work of individuals such as Jacques Hadamard, Hermann Minkowski, Felix Hausdorff, Emmy Noether (widely considered to have been the greatest woman in the history of mathematics),John von Neumann, Vito Volterra, Norbert Wiener, Oscar Zariski, Emil Post, Alfred Tarski, Paul Erdös, Israel Gelfand,AndréWeil, Alexander Grothendieck*, and hundreds of others. Grothendieck and von Neumann are generally ranked (along with German mathematician David Hilbert) among the three greatest mathematicians of the twentieth century.

Jews have made major contributions to virtually all branches of mathematics and were especially prominent among the founders and pioneers of a number of these, includingset theory(Georg Cantor*, Abraham Fraenkel, Felix Hausdorff, and Paul Cohen),modern algebraic geometry(Guido Castelnuovo, Federigo Enriques, Oscar Zariski,AndréWeil, and Alexander Grothendieck*),category theory(Samuel Eilenberg),functional analysis(Giulio Ascoli, Cesare Arzelŕ, Jacques Hadamard, Vito Volterra, Frigyes Riesz, Hans Hahn, Eduard Helly, Norbert Wiener, and John von Neumann),theory of operator algebras(John von Neumann, Israel Gelfand, Mark Naimark, I. E. Segal, and Irving Kaplansky),integral equations theory(Vito Volterra), andstochastic process theory(Albert Einstein, Paul Lévy, Norbert Wiener, Wolfgang Doeblin, William Feller*, Alexander Khinchine, and Joseph Doob).

A number of the most powerful mathematical methods employed in scientific, engineering, and/or economic applications were invented, or co-invented, by Jews, including thefinite element method(Boris Galerkin and Richard Courant), theMonte Carlo method(Stanislaw Ulam and John von Neumann),linear programming(Leonid Kantorovich, George B. Dantzig, and John von Neumann), andgame theory(John von Neumann). Work in the latter two fields has garnered more than a dozen Nobel Prizes in economics.

The relative magnitude of the Jewish contribution to twentieth and twenty-first century mathematics can be estimated from the Jewish representation among the recipients of several of the most prestigiousawardsin the field, which are listed below.Another indicator is the greater than 40% Jewish makeup of the combined membership of the divisions of mathematics and applied mathematical sciences of the US National Academy of Sciences.

Jewish MathematiciansJewish Fields Medalists (23% of recipients)Jewish Recipients of the Abel Prize (31% of recipients)

Jewish Recipients of the Wolf Prize in Mathematics (38% of recipients)Jewish Recipients of the Leroy P. Steele Prize for Lifetime Achievement (56% of recipients)Jewish Recipients of the Bôcher Memorial Prize (44% of recipients)Jewish Recipients of the Frank Nelson Cole Prizes in Algebra and Number Theory (38% of recipients)Jewish Recipients of the Oswald Veblen Prize in Geometry (35% of recipients)Jewish Recipients of the Norbert Wiener Prize in Applied Mathematics (40% of recipients)Jewish Recipients of the George David Birkhoff Prize in Applied Mathematics (37% of recipients)

NOTES

* See footnotes on the Jewish backgrounds of Cantor, Feller, and Grothendieck in the list ofJewish Mathematicians.

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