NOTES1. Jewish mother (née Fanya Davidovna Vulf), non-Jewish father; see The Encyclopedia of Russian Jewry, Biographies A-I, edited by Herman Branover (Jason Aronson, Northvale, NJ, 1998, p. 10) and Candid Science V: Conversations with Famous Scientists, by Balazs Hargittai and István Hargittai (Imperial College Press, London, 2005, p. 185).
2. See The Encyclopedia of Russian Jewry, Biographies A-I, edited by Herman Branover (Jason Aronson, Northvale, NJ, 1998, p. 37). Mother's maiden name was Anna Rosenblum. NB: This reference includes biographies of individuals who are both of Jewish and of half-Jewish parentage, but does not generally specify which is, in fact, the case. Alferov's father, Ivan Karpovich Alferov, was most likely not Jewish.
3. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see Celestial Encounters, by F. Diacu and P. Holmes (Princeton, 1996, p. 191).
4. Mixed, but mostly Jewish background. See Biographical Memoirs, Volume 75 (National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1998, p. 4).
5. See The Encyclopedia of Russian Jewry, Biographies A-I, edited by Herman Branover (Jason Aronson, Northvale, NJ, 1998, p. 143). Although Berezin's father was non-Jewish, he identified as Jewish; see Felix Berezin: The Life and Death of the Mastermind of Supermathematics, edited by Mikhail Shifman (World Scientific, Singapore, London, and Hackensack, NJ, 2007, pp. 124-125).
6. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father.
7. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father.
8. Jewish father (Dr. Lewis Lipman Seligman), non-Jewish mother. DeWitt was born Carl Seligman.
9. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother; see http://authors.library.caltech.edu/5456/1/hrst.mit.edu/hrs/renormalization/Dzyaloshinskii/index.html.
10. Several visitors have confused Valentin Fabrikant with Valery Fabrikant, a Russian emigre professor convicted of multiple murders in Canada in the 1990s. Valentin Fabrikant developed the concept of the laser in the 1930s and 1940s. He was the first scientist to seriously analyze the process of light amplification by stimulated emission. Working in the Soviet Union, he developed techniques for producing population inversions, including the basic collisional technique used in many gas lasers, including the HeNe laser. In a 1951 patent, he further proposed optical pumping techniques and the use of optical cavities.
11. See The Encyclopedia of Russian Jewry, Biographies A-I, edited by Herman Branover (Jason Aronson, Northvale, NJ, 1998, pp. 351-352). Frank's father was Jewish and his mother non-Jewish.
12. Friedmann's paternal grandfather was a Jewish cantonist. These were Jewish children conscripted into Russian military institutions, where they received military training and were placed under intense pressure to convert. Upon reaching the age of eighteen, they were then forced to serve in the Czarist army for another twenty-five years. The degree of Friedmann's Jewish ancestry is unclear, but he was probably no more than one-half Jewish. See Alexander A. Friedmann: the Man who Made the Universe Expand, by E. A. Tropp, V. Ya. Frenkel, and A. D. Chernin (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 1993, Chapter 1). See also http://www.jewishgen.org/Belarus/rje_f.htm, which contains entries for both Friedmann and his father (both names spelled "Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Fridman").
13. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.
14. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother. Jed Buchwald's biography of Heinrich Hertz, The Creation of Scientific Effects: Heinrich Hertz and the Discovery of Electric Waves (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1994, p. 45), conveys the misimpression that Hertz's paternal grandmother was not of Jewish origin. She was, in fact, born Betty Oppenheim and was the daughter of the prominent Jewish banker Salomon Oppenheim and his wife, whose maiden name was Levy. Hertz's father, Gustav Ferdinand Hertz (originally David Gustav Hertz), and both of Hertz's paternal grandparents, Heinrich David Hertz (originally Hertz Hertz) and Betty Oppenheim, all converted to Christianity. (See genealogical chart on p. 46 of Buchwald's biography and http://www.rrz.uni-hamburg.de/rz3a035/bundesstrasse1.html.)
15. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother. See A Jew in Rome, by Richard Ellis in the April 2001 issue of Midstream.
16. See http://www.jewishgen.org/Belarus/rje_k.htm. Mother, née Lyudmila Vsevolodovna Keldysh, was not Jewish; father was Benjamin Granovskii.
17. Son of the Jewish biochemist Hans Kosterlitz; see Anatomy of a Scientific Discovery, by Jeff Goldberg (Bantam, New York, 1988, pp. 11 and 111).
18. Jewish mother, father of half-Jewish descent; see http://books.nap.edu/books/0309055415/html/242.html#pagetop.
19. Jewish mother (née Feigenbaum). Information based on statements made by Prof. Müller during a 2006 visit to Israel to receive an honorary doctorate from Bar-Ilan University.
20. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother; see http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1996/osheroff-autobio.html.
21. Pauli described himself as being three-quarters Jewish in a letter to the director of the Institute for Advanced Study, Frank Aydelotte, quoted in the April 1995 issue of Physics Today (p. 86). See also http://www.ethbib.ethz.ch/exhibit/pauli/ausreise_e.html. According to the family-authorized biography of Pauli by Charles Enz, No Time to be Brief: A Scientific Biography of Wolfgang Pauli (Oxford, Oxford and New York, 2002, pp. 1-7), three of Pauli's four grandparents (all but his maternal grandmother) were Jewish. Specifically, Pauli's father, Wolfgang Pauli, Sr. (originally Wolf Pascheles, whose parents came from the prominent Jewish Pascheles and Utitz families of Prague), converted from Judaism to Roman Catholicism shortly before his marriage in 1899 to Bertha Camilla Schütz. Bertha Schütz was raised in her mother's Roman Catholic religion, but her father was the Jewish writer Friedrich Schütz (whose biography can be found on p. 469 of Vol. 5 of S. Wininger's Grosse Jüdische National-Biographie). Although Pauli was raised as a Roman Catholic, eventually he (and his parents) left the Church.
22. Jewish mother, father of half-Jewish descent; see http://books.nap.edu/books/0309052378/html/268.html#pagetop.
23. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother; see Léon Rosenfeld: Physics, Philosophy, and Politics in the Twentieth Century, by Anja Skaar Jacobsen (World Scientific, Singapore, London, and Hackensack, NJ, 2012, p. 12).
24. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother. See section entitled "Background and Education, Toronto" in 1996 interview with Suzanne B. Riess.
25. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.
26. Jewish father, Karl Schwarzschild, non-Jewish mother.
27. Jewish father, Alexander Izrailevich Starobinsky.
28. Jewish father (biochemist Jack Strominger).
29. See The Encyclopedia of Russian Jewry, Biographies A-I, edited by Herman Branover, Jason Aronson, Northvale, NJ, 1998, pp. 351-352; see also the article by the late Harvard Russian Research Center historian of Soviet Science Mark Kuchment in the June 1988 issue of Physics Today, p. 82. The extent of Tamm's Jewish background is unclear.
30. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics, by Martinus Veltman (World Scientific, Singapore, London, and River Edge, NJ, 2003, p. 173).
31. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.
32. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.