NOTES1. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.
2. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see Part of My Life: The Memoirs of a Philosopher, by A. J. Ayer (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, New York, 1977, p.13).
3. Berger was born to Viennese-Jewish parents who became Protestants in 1938. The family found refuge from the Nazis during World War II in British Mandate Palestine. See Im Morgenlicht der Erinnerung: Eine Kindheit in turbulenter Zeit, by Peter L. Berger (Molden, Cologne, Germany, 2008).
4. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father.
5. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.
6. Son of a Danish-Jewish mother, Karla Abrahamsen, and a German-Jewish step-father, Dr. Theodor Homburger. Prior to her marriage to Homburger, Erikson's mother was briefly married to a Danish Jew, Valdemar Isidor Salomonson. Erikson claimed, however, that his real biological father was an unknown, non-Jewish Dane.
7. Jewish mother (née Lois Brieger), non-Jewish father.
8. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.
9. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see http://www.firstthings.com/article/2007/01/remembering-ivan-illich-43.
10. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see Genia and Wassily by Estelle Marks Leontief (Zephyr Press, Sommerville, MA, 1987, pp. 8 and 18).
11. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father. See Metzler Philosophen Lexikon, edited by Bernd Lutz (Metzler, Stuttgart, 1989, p. 503).
12. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father.
13. Jewish father (Lewis Mack), non-Jewish mother. See Lewis Mumford: A Life, by Donald Miller (Grove, New York, 2002, pp.4, 11).
14. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother; see Vienna and the Jews: 1867-1938, by Steven Beller (Cambridge, 1990, pp. 15-16).
15. Pauli described himself as being three-quarters Jewish in a letter to the director of the Institute for Advanced Study, Frank Aydelotte, quoted in the April 1995 issue of Physics Today (p. 86). See also http://www.ethbib.ethz.ch/exhibit/pauli/ausreise_e.html. According to the family-authorized biography of Pauli by Charles Enz, No Time to be Brief: A Scientific Biography of Wolfgang Pauli (Oxford, Oxford and New York, 2002, pp. 1-7), three of Pauli's four grandparents (all but his maternal grandmother) were Jewish. Specifically, Pauli's father, Wolfgang Pauli, Sr. (originally Wolf Pascheles, whose parents came from the prominent Jewish Pascheles and Utitz families of Prague), converted from Judaism to Roman Catholicism shortly before his marriage in 1899 to Bertha Camilla Schütz. Bertha Schütz was raised in her mother's Roman Catholic religion, but her father was the Jewish writer Friedrich Schütz (whose biography can be found on p. 469 of Vol. 5 of S. Wininger's Grosse Jüdische National-Biographie). Although Pauli was raised as a Roman Catholic, eventually he (and his parents) left the Church.
16. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 14 (Keter, Jerusalem, 1972, p. 952).
17. Jewish father, half-Jewish mother; see, e.g., Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius, by Ray Monk (Penguin, New York and London, 1990, pp. 4-7).